This mesa falls away sharply on the north, west, and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. The church at Pergamum and Satan have one thing in common, their home town. Bergama, town, İzmir ili (province), western Turkey, 50 miles (80 km) north of the city of İzmir (Smyrna).It shares the site of ancient Pergamum, of which there are extensive ruins remaining.The modern town lies over the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the ancient Greek city with its acropolis lie northeast across the Bergama River, on a high hill with terraced slopes. … In Roman times its population was an estimated 200,000. See more. Today, it would maybe be called the worldly church in Pergamum. Sabine Müller, "Genealogie und Legitimation in den hellenistischen Reichen," in Hartwin Brandt, Katrin Köhler, Ulrike Siewert (ed.  These mythic connections seem to be late and are not attested before the 3rd century BC. Since it was the most important street of the city, the quality of the material used in its construction was very high. It was a Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple, with three triglyphs and metopes for each span in the entablature. The foundations, measuring around 12.70 x 21.80 metres, are still visible today. This was the place ‘where Satan’s throne is’ (Rev. The altar to Zeus was one of the most impressive structures in Pergamum. Philatarius founded Pergamum in the 3rd Century B.C. But the Christians of Pergamum had been doing pretty well. In 362 BC, Orontes, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian Empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. Today, all that's left there is the foundation; the Altar of Zeus is more than a thousand miles away. He or his successor Attalos I built a wall around the whole upper city, including the plateau to the south, the upper agora and some of the housing - further housing must have been found outside these walls. Pergamum existed at least Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, and founder of the Attalid dynasty. This material was dealt with in a number of tragedies, such as Aeschylus' Mysi, Sophocles' Aleadae, and Euripides' Telephus and Auge, but Pergamon does not seem to have played any role in any of them. Seating capacity of this theater is estimated at 10,000 people. Two … Coming from the Upper market, one could enter this from a tower-building at the south end. This final step was only taken by his successor Attalus I, after he defeated the Galatians in 238, whom Pergamon had paid tribute to under Eumenes I. A 20-metre-wide (66 ft) staircase cut into the base on the western side leads up to the upper structure, which is surrounded by a colonnade, and consists of a colonnaded courtyard, separated from the staircase by a colonnade. Updates? The temple sits on a 2.9-metre-high (9.5 ft) podium on top of a vaulted terrace.  Contrary to earlier attempts at an orthogonal street system, a fan-shaped design seems to have been adopted for the area around the gymnasium, with streets up to four metres wide, apparently intended to enable effective traffic flow. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.  The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. Pergamum, also known as Pergamos, was called the greatest city in Asia Minor. In 1930 German engineers dismantled the altar and took it to Berlin displayed in the city's Pergamon Museum just in time to inspire one of the most brutal dictators the world has ever seen. 2:10) that martyr took on its present meaning. Pergamos, according to Dr. Young, was "A celebrated city of Mysia, near the river Caicus.  When Emperor Theodore II Laskaris (r. 1254–1285) visited Pergamon in 1250, he was shown the house of Galen, but he saw that the theatre had been destroyed and, except for the walls which he paid some attention to, only the vaults over the Selinus seemed noteworthy to him. To the north, the area was closed off by a high stoa, while on the west and east sides it was surrounded by simple ashlar walls, until further stoas were inserted in Hadrian's reign. 2:10) that martyr took on its present meaning. The location of the library building is not certain. For more detail, click on individual Church name.. Church of Pergamos Revelation 2:12-16. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria. This was however an erroneous reconstruction by the English translators, and does not appear in the Greek text, which uses either the original Πέργαμον (Rev 1:11) or the dative case Περγάμῳ (Rev 2:12). The modern village of Bergama, Turkey, now covers part of the ancient site. In 1971, after a short pause, Wolfgang Radt succeeded him as leader of excavations and directed the focus of research on the residential buildings of Pergamon, but also on technical issues, like the water management system of the city which supported a population of 200,000 at its height. In the courtyards there were often cisterns, which captured rain water from the sloping roofs above. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. 1:11) and forms the third letter, an order which suits its position in geographical sequence. During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. Ancient Lands and Their Current Names. This pool was 35 metres higher than the summit of the citadel. Pergamum existed at least from the 5th century bce, but it became important only in the Hellenistic Age (323–30 bce), when it served as the residence of the Attalid dynasty. Pergamos, according to Dr. Young, was "A celebrated city of Mysia, near the river Caicus." The site is occupied by the modern town of Bergama, in the il (province) of İzmir, Turkey. Volume XV 1: Meinrad N. Filges, Wolfgang Radt: This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 23:19. , Coin of Orontes, Achaemenid Satrap of Mysia (including Pergamon), Adramyteion. Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). Beginning with Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli in the 15th century, ever more travellers visited the place and published their accounts of it. Pergamon (Ancient Greek: Πέργαμον or Πέργαμος), or Pergamum, was an ancient Greek city in modern-day Turkey, in Mysia, today located 16 miles (26 km) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 281–133 BC. In the east part of the courtyard, there were more than ten rows of seating laid out in front of the northern stoa for participants in the mysteries of Demeter.  As with the Upper Agora, the rectangular form of the agora was adapted to the steep terrain. Asclepius’ symbol is a serpent-entwined staff (still used in the medical world today). Here you can find information about the history of ancient Turkey, about biblical sites to visit in Turkey and Greece, major Christian Saints, missionary journeys of St. Paul and Seven Churches of St. John. A few years later, the Apostle John wrote the Book of Revelation, mentioning the death of Antipas in Pergamum. Pergamum's history starts with a man who called Philatarius, who was friend of General Lysimachus, once established Ephesus Tours.  A new street network was created and a new city wall with a monumental gatehouse south of the Acropolis called the Gate of Eumenes. One of the … Pergamum Read More » Theatre specifications and virtual reality tour of theatre, "The Seductive Elegance and Startling Cruelty of Greece's Baroque Age: Power, Pathos and Prestige in Pergamon and Other Hellenistic Kingdoms", Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pergamon&oldid=990687627, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Archaeological sites in the Aegean Region, Buildings and structures in İzmir Province, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles with Ancient Greek-language sources (grc), Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape. This throne was on top of a 800 foot hill next to the city. Corrections?  However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar.. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. The Acropolis of Pergamum (Pergamon) is certainly dramatic, perched atop a high, steep-sided hill to the northeast of the modern city center (). Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast.  In the west, the 'West Chamber' was built which might have served as a market administration building. Below the theatre is a 247-metre-long (810 ft) and up to 17.4-metre-wide (57 ft) terrace, which rested on a high retaining wall and was framed on the long side by a stoa. The Temple of Hera sat in the middle of the upper terrace, facing to the south, with a 6-metre-wide (20 ft) exedra to the west and a building whose function is very unclear to the east. Today it is visible yet in the Pergamum Museum in the city -- get this -- of East Berlin! Philetairos' design of the city was shaped above all by circumstantial considerations. Some complexes were designed as Prostas houses, similar to designs seen at Priene. The altar’s stairs, columns, and sculptured sides once stood forty feet (12 meters) high. Under his leadership the Lower Agora, the House of Attalos, the Gymnasion, and the Sanctuary of Demeter were brought to light. A large gymnasium area was built in the 2nd century BC on the south side of the Acropolis. The archaeological reports from Pergamon are published in German as Altertümer von Pergamon (de Gruyter, Berlin). The Lord commended them for holding fast to the faith, even though one of their members had already been martyred, Antipas the “faithful witness.” “Witness” in Greek is martys ; it is because the early church had so many witnesses like Antipas who were “faithful unto death” (Rev. For the construction of buildings and laying out of the agoras, extensive work on the cliff-face and terracing had to be carried out. Pergamum is listed third of the ‘seven churches of Asia’ (Rev.  With progressive development of the open space, these buildings were demolished, while the Upper Agora itself took on a more strongly commercial function, while still a special space as a result of the temple of Zeus.  In a less heroic version, Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city after him in gratitude for a favour. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused.  The adaptation of the myth is not entirely smooth. After this year, a massive new city wall was constructed, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres). A permanent residence is the idea. Beginning in the Roman period, his image appears on civic coinage and he is said to have had a heroon in the city. In the reign of Attalos I, a Temple of Zeus was built there. The pipe consisted of three channels, which ended 3 km north of the citadel, before reaching the valley, and emptied into a pool, which included a double sedimentation tank. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. In addition to cisterns, there was a system of nine pipes (seven Hellenistic ceramic pipes and two open Roman channels. Jesus had John to pass along one of His prophetic letters to Pergamos (also referred to as Pergamum), in which He says: “I know thy works, and … , The well-preserved Theatre of Pergamon [de] dates from the Hellenistic period and had space for around 10,000 people, in 78 rows of seats. A modern statue of Asclepius from the Asclepium in Pergamos. During the crisis of the Third Century, the economic strength of Pergamon finally collapsed, as the city was badly damaged in an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly thereafter. Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (2003) "The Attalids of Pergamon," in Andrew Erskine, ed.. Nagy, Gregory (1998). Pergamos also had a famous temple of Esculapius, who was represented under the … Doubtless, such a ceremony took place in Pergamos too. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century. It consisted of a courtyard surrounded by stoas and other structures, measuring roughly 36 x 74 metres.  With his mother, he was said to have fled to Mysia where he killed the ruler of Teuthrania and gave the city his own name. , The upper terrace measured 150 x 70 metres square, making it the largest of the three terraces. If that has any connection with the rise of Hitler, and the Nazis, I leave to you to judge. Their significance for architectural history lies in the form of the last kilometres from the mountains through a 200-metre-deep (660 ft) valley to the Akropolis. Today ancient Pergamum … In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated. This frieze is around 1.60 metres high and thus is clearly smaller than the outer frieze. Pergamon, which traced its founding back to Telephus, the son of Heracles, is not mentioned in Greek myth or epic of the archaic or classical periods. The temple and the altar were built for Demeter by Philetaerus, his brother Eumenes, and their mother Boa. The people lived below the mountain.  All of these claims derive their significance from Alexander the Great, who claimed descent from Heracles, through his father Philip II.. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then. Numerous public buildings were constructed, as well as a new marketplace south of the acropolis and a new gymnasion in the east. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. The columns were around 5.25 metres high, 0.75 metres in diameter, and the distance between the columns was 1.62 metres, so the colonnade was very light for a temple of this period. Recorded in Revelation 2:12-17, this letter is identified as being "the words of him who has the sharp, double-edged sword" (verse 12). Pergamon was an ancient city located in the Anatolia region, approximately 25 kilometres from the Aegean Sea in present-day Bergama, Izmir Province of Turkey. Under the Roman Empire the city was situated on the plain below. But East Berlin is also where Hitler's headquarters were located. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats. As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886. Today, all that's left there is the foundation; the Altar of Zeus is more than a thousand miles away. There is little to see at the original site today, but it is enough to provide a sense of the magnitude of the great shrine. Pergamum was very wealthy, the center of emperor worship with many temples devoted to idolatry. , In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. On Dionysus Kathegemon, see Erwin Ohlemutz: Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie, "Darstellung der Forschungsgeschichte seit Carl Humann auf der Website des DAI", http://chs.harvard.edu/publications.sec/online_print_books.ssp/, Photographic tour of old and new Pergamon, including the museum, The Theatre at Pergamon. A wide passage or colonnade on the north side of the courtyard often opened onto foyers, which enabled access to other rooms. For example, the ancient city of Pergamum was said to be “where the throne of Satan is” and “where Satan is dwelling.” (Revelation 2:13) Actually, these expressions likely refer to the concentration of satanic worship in that city.
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